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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The tragedy of maternal filicide, or child murder by mothers, has occurred throughout history and throughout the world. This review of the research literature sought to identify common predictors in the general population as well as in correctional and psychiatric samples. Further research is needed to improve identification of children and mothers at risk.

Infanticide laws are discussed.

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Suggestions for prevention are made based on the current literature and the authors' experiences. When a young child is murdered, the most frequent perpetrator is a victim's parent or stepparent 1. Rates of infanticide parallel suicide rates rather than murder rates 2. The risk of being a homicide victim is highest during the first year of life 3 - 5.

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Though the US has the highest rates of child homicide 8. These rates of child murder are probably underestimates, due to inaccurate coroner rulings and some bodies never being discovered 478. Maternal filicide is defined as child murder by the mother.

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Infanticide is child murder in the first year of life. The term neonaticide was coined by Resnick 9 to describe murder of an infant within the first 24 hours of life.

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Almost all neonaticides are committed by mothers. Neonaticidal mothers are often young, unmarried women with unwanted pregnancies who receive no prenatal care. For a detailed analysis of the neonaticide literature and a discussion of neonaticide prevention, the reader is referred to our recent review Resnick's review of the world psychiatric literature on maternal filicide 11 found filicidal mothers to have frequent depression, psychosis, prior mental health treatment, and suicidal thoughts.

Maternal filicide research findings

Maternal filicide perpetrators have five major motives: a in an altruistic filicide, a mother kills her child out of love; she believes death to be in the child's best interest for example, a suicidal mother may not wish to leave her motherless child to face an intolerable world; or a psychotic mother may believe that she is saving her child from a fate worse than death ; b in an acutely psychotic filicide, a psychotic or delirious mother kills her child without any comprehensible motive for example, a mother may follow command hallucinations to kill ; c when fatal maltreatment filicide occurs, death is usually not the anticipated outcome; it from cumulative child abuse, neglect, or Munchausen syndrome by proxy; d in an unwanted child filicide, a mother thinks of her child as a hindrance; e the most rare, spouse revenge filicide occurs when a mother kills her child specifically to emotionally harm that child's father.

In developing countries, the preference for male infants may lead to sex-selective killings 12 Cultural and legal differences across countries may affect research findings.

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For example, one country's correctional sample may be similar to another country's psychiatric sample, depending on the laws and attitudes toward prosecution. The purposes of this paper are to summarize recent research findings about maternal filicide, and to consider potential strategies for prevention.

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The authors completed database searches for peer-reviewed articles in English regarding maternal filicide over the past quarter century. Studies were separated by population type, as in our analysis 14because studies in the general population differ from those in psychiatric or correctional populations.

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Maternal filicide-suicide a mother kills both her child and herself was considered independently. In addition to studies of mothers who have committed filicide 3415 - 55several studies have investigated the prevalence of filicidal thoughts in various populations. An American macro-level study of infanticide victims in the first year of life found increased rates with economic stress Although England and Wales have Infanticide Acts, and Scotland does not, the countries experience similar rates of infanticide 3 Maternal infanticide studies in the general population 20384445 found a predominance of unemployed mothers in their early 20s.

Many cases occurred in the context of child abuse 4though some mothers had associated suicide attempts.

Child murder by mothers: patterns and prevention

In Japan, the infant victims frequently had physical anomalies. The mothers were often poor, socially isolated, full-time caregivers, who were victims of domestic violence or had other relationship problems. Disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds and primary responsibility for the children were common.

Persistent crying or child factors were sometimes precipitants for the filicide.

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Some mothers had ly abused the child, while others were mentally ill and devoted to their child Neglectful or abusive mothers were often substance abusers. Many of the perpetrators had psychosis, depression, or suicidality 151618202840 - 43454851 In the correctional population, filicidal mothers were frequently unmarried, unemployed abuse victims, who had limited education and social support 29 - 3346 - 4753 Some had decreased intellect, and a few considered the child victim to be abnormal.

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Several correctional studies noted frequent depression, psychosis, substance abuse, suicidality, and prior mental health care 33464753 Multiple stressors economic, social, abuse history, partner relationship problemsprimary caregiver status, and difficulty caring for the child were frequent. The filicidal mothers in psychiatric samples had frequently experienced psychosis, depression, suicidality, and prior mental health care 18192225 - 2734 - 37394950 Their mean age was in their late 20s 1819222534 - Some were diagnosed with personality disorders and some had low intelligence.

ificant life stresses were often noted. Our recent study of mothers found not guilty by reason of insanity in two U. Over one third of the homicides occurred during pregnancy or the postpartum year. Almost all the mothers had altruistic or acutely psychotic motives A small New Zealand study that interviewed the mothers after their filicides found that psychotic mothers who had committed filicide often killed suddenly without much planning, whereas depressed mothers had contemplated killing their children for days to weeks prior to their crimes Many other mothers make non-fatal suicide attempts in association with their filicides.

Filicide-suicides have much in common with filicides committed by severely mentally ill mothers Most frequently, these mothers have altruistic motives 15 Similar to of other studies 152048our recent American study found that maternal filicide-suicide perpetrators killed older children more often than infants mean age of children killed was 6 years old. The mothers often had evidence of depression or psychosis These mothers often take the lives of all their young children.

A relatively high incidence of filicidal thoughts has been found in mentally ill women. Thirty-six percent of these women engaged in some type of infanticidal behavior. Their behavior was associated with negative maternal reaction to separation, psychotic beliefs about the infant, and female sex of the infant. Our recent survey of psychiatrists at two American academic institutions found that many psychiatrists do not specifically ask their patients who are mothers about thoughts of harming their children, but rather they inquire generally about homicidal thoughts The surveyed psychiatrists frequently underestimated the prevalence of depressed mothers who have thoughts of harming their children.

Infanticide laws often reduce the penalty for mothers who kill their children up to one year of age, based on the principle that a woman who commits infanticide does so because "the balance of her mind is disturbed by reason of her not having fully recovered from the effect of giving birth to the child" The British Infanticide Act of amended in allows mothers to be charged with manslaughter rather than murder if they are suffering from a mental disturbance.

The law was originally based on the outdated concept of lactational insanity, but the public's desire to excuse sympathetic women caused reluctance to alter the law after lactational insanity was discredited.

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Women convicted of infanticide often receive probation and referral to mental health treatment rather than incarceration The majority of nations that have infanticide laws have followed the British precedent and decrease the penalty for mothers killing children under one year old. However, the legal definition of infanticide varies among countries. The murder of children up to age ten is included in New Zealand In practice, however, women convicted of infanticide in England sometimes do not have ificant mental illness as technically required by the law Opponents of infanticide laws point out that fathers are granted far less leniency.

A father who is equally psychotically depressed as a mother, who kills his month-old child in an altruistic psychotic belief with an associated suicide attempt, should not be treated differently than a similarly situated mother. Some feminists criticize the infanticide laws for "pathologizing childbirth". They believe that making this exception for women denies them the same capacity for self-governance attributed to men If the U.

An acutely psychotic mother who killed her 13 month old child would not qualify for the infanticide law in England though a mother who battered her 11 month old child might.

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Psychiatrists should assess filicide risk in a systematic way, as they do for suicide. First they must entertain the possibility of maternal filicide. Psychiatrists should intervene to prevent potential filicides in which maternal mental illness plays a role.

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Mothers who have altruistic or acutely psychotic motives for filicide may be psychotic, depressed, manic, or delirious. Some mothers who come to psychiatric attention because of severe mental illnesses, personality disorders, or substance use disorders may be abusing or neglecting their children.

Psychiatrists may ask about childrearing practices, parenting problems, and feelings of being overwhelmed.